The defensive ditch was about two metres long.) 58BC to 51BC: Julius Caesar enlarges his military reputation by fighting in Gaul.
Estimates are that he destroys whole tribes, kills about 400,000 people and enslaves about 400,000.
It is thought it formed part of a large fort protecting Caesar's ships on the nearby beach.
100BC: Greek women wear bras, but outside their clothing. 120BC: Downfall of the Hittite Empire, perhaps due to Phrygian invaders. Parthians originally nomadic, much interchange of religious ideas, with Zoroastrianism, Gnosticism, Mazda worship, Mithras. (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World, The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue July/August 2005) 129BC: Rome: Province of Asia is organized. 146BC: Rome (with feeling whipped up by Cato the Elder) defeats Carthage and ruins the soil of the area for agriculture by salting it. 197BC: Rome organizes provinces of Hither and Farther Spain. Area of today's Cartagena, or Catalonia and Valencia. About 200BC: Aramaic language except for religious texts replaced cuneiform, Somewhat later, the American Mayans; in such areas, today, local prophets (with the aid of peyote) lay face down and hallucinate voices.
100BC-1AD, to 600AD, Possible dates for creation of Nazca Lines of Peru. (Mc Neill) 124BC-87BC: The Silk Road route to China opened by Mithradates I, of the Parthians, east of the Caspian Sea, who arrived by say 250BC. 130BC: More to come 133BC: Rome: Tribune Tiberius Gracchus attempts land reform in Italy for small land-holders. His brother Gaius tries more reforms such as subsidized grain prices for poor folk in 123BC, provoking a crisis of government. Birth of Christ, Jaynes view is that the attempted reform of Judaism by Christ can be construed as a necessarily new religion for conscious men rather than bicameral men: behaviour to arise from within subjectivity rather than be carved from without by the Mosaic Law; Christ seen by some as "the word [of the gods] made flesh". 218-202BC: Rome/Iberia: Second Punic War: Rome expels Carthaginians from Spain and then subdues the Iberian tribes, (tho what of the Basques? Spain later gave to Rome the emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius and Theodosius the Great. Also, trained elephants could carry wooden towers capable of holding 32 archers or soldiers.
The name Spartacus has associations with south west Bulgaria or the Black Sea area. Russian professor excavating the treasure was Victor Sarianidi (who with one "single find, changed art history". An expert commenting on Afghan art and cultural history is Carla Grissman, of Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage. 105BC: Rome: Province of Gallia Narbonenis is organized. He died when in his 50s, and his skull had an artificial 1.62cm hole, a case of trepanation, an operation to relieve pressure on the brain. (First mention of "Eve's sin") 200BC: Alexandria, Egypt: A cultured city with 500,000 population, with world's first lighthouse, a university, library with 500,000 manuscripts/books, multi-decked shipping, theatres, temples with automatic sliding doors, and engineers working with a simple steam engine.
(Reported 7 November 2001) Bactria was "the flat part of modern western Afghanistan", the area between the Hindu Kush in the Himalayas down to the ancient Oxus River (Amu Darya whihc runs into the Aral Sea). Gaul, or south-eastern France, the area of Provence/Languedoc. Trepanned skulls have been found from as long ago as 3000BC, but it is still uncertain just what the operation was designed to achieve, medically. c160BC: First mention in Hebrew literature of resurrection, eternal life. (Notes from: Peter James and Nick Thorpe, Ancient Inventions."It's a big force, and you need a big landing place, because simply to land that number of vessels you need a big front.